Nelson Mandela´s release from prison in February 1990 was one of the most memorable moments of recent decades. It came a few days after the removal of the ban on the African National Congress; founded a century ago and outlawed in 1960, it had transferred its headquarters abroad and opened what it termed an External Mission. For the thirty years following its banning, the ANC had fought relentlessly against the apartheid state. Finally voted into office in 1994, the ANC today regards its armed struggle as the central plank of its legitimacy. External Mission is the first study of the ANC´s period in exile, based on a full range of sources in southern Africa and Europe. These include the ANC´s own archives and also those of the Stasi, the East German ministry that trained the ANC´s security personnel. It reveals that the decision to create the Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) -- guerrilla army which later became the ANC´s armed wing -- as made not by the ANC but by its allies in the South African Communist Party after negotiations with Chinese leader Mao Zedong. In this impressive work, Ellis shows that many of the strategic decisions made, and many of the political issues that arose during the course of that protracted armed struggle, had a lasting effect on South Africa, shaping its society even up to the present day.
Brazil owes almost $250 billion to private banks, governments and multilateral agencies. External Debt provides a concise history of Brazil´s financial crisis. Marcos Arruda focuses on the government of Fernando Henrique Cardoso and its agreement with the International Monetary Fund. He examines how Cardoso´s economic policies have brought Brazil to financial ruin by submitting to the dictates of the IMF and the US government. Despite this, the author argues, Brazilians are neither passive nor resigned to Cardoso´s policies. Arruda describes the viable alternatives which the government and opposition parties have both failed to realise, and examines a range of related key issues, such as the Jubilee 2000 Debt Campaign and its Brazilian dimension.Arruda explores the ways in which social movements in both hemispheres have developed a global network around the issue of over-indebtedness, and the extent to which their pressure on authorities has led to important policy changes on the part of creditor governments and multilateral institutions. The study concludes with an assessment of a range of proposals submitted by national and international forums, demonstrating that civil society around the world is mobilised towards equitable relations between North and South.
Inhaltlich unveränderte Neuauflage. Häufig wird empfohlen, beim Lernen über die neuen Inhalte zu diskutieren, sie schriftlich zu verarbeiten oder sie grafisch darzustellen. Aber ist das wirklich empfehlenswert? Unterstützt das Externalisieren das Lernen? Empirische Ergebnisse sprechen hier keine so eindeutige Sprache. Das Externalisieren kann nämlich nur dann positive Effekte auf das Verarbeiten und Lernen von neuen Inhalten haben, wenn man davon ausgehen kann, dass dabei zwei Prozesse stattfinden: der Prozess des eigentlichen Externalisierens und ein Rückkoppelungsprozess vom externalisierten Produkt (Prozess des mentalen Re-Repräsentierens). Nur die Existenz eines solchen Rückkoppelungsprozesses ermöglicht es, dass das externalisierte Produkt erstens als externer Speicher und zweitens als eine zusätzliche Quelle für die weitere Informationsverarbeitung fungieren kann. Die vorliegende Studie gibt erste Evidenzen für die Existenz eines solchen Rückkoppelungsprozesses beim Externalisieren. Sie zeigt auf, unter welchen Bedingungen das Externalisieren eine Hilfe bei der Informationsverarbeitung und beim Lernen sein kann.
External ratings represent an independent opinion of credit experts that evaluate the overall creditworthiness of an issuer and its issues. Running from AAA to D, they serve as an indicator for the increasing probability of default, i.e. risk. During recent credit market turmoil many investors lost a fortune due to unforeseen defaults of issuers and a downslide of yields. In the following, internationally renowned rating agencies were blamed for having failed in fulfilling their gatekeeping role. By describing the rating process and the underlying rating criteria, the author reveals the deficiencies of external ratings. Understanding the interdependency of ratings and market expectations, the reader gains insight into what has happened before and during the financial crisis. Finally, the author provides an outlook on changes in and challenges of a recovering rating industry. This book is addressed to those who feel unsecure about the expressiveness and credibility of ratings. Questioning the informative value of ratings and clearly showing the limits, it gives valuable advice on how to consciously operate with ratings.