Atomic Spectra and Collisions in External Fields:
Atomic Spectra and Collisions in External Fields:Physics of Atoms and Molecules. Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1988.
This thesis describes improvements to and control of the electrical conductance in single-molecule junctions (SMJs), which have potential applications in molecular electronics, with a focus on the bonding between the metal and molecule. In order to improve the electrical conductance, the ? orbital of the molecule is directly bonded to the metal orbital, because anchoring groups, which were typically used in other studies to bind molecule with metal electrodes, became resistive spacers. Using this direct ?-binding, the author has successfully demonstrated highly conductive SMJs involving benzene, endohedral metallofullerene Ce@C82, and nitrogen. Subsequently, the author investigated control of the electrical conductance of SMJs using pyrazine. The nitrogen atom in the ?-conjugated system of pyrazine was expected to function as an anchoring point, and two bonding states were expected. One originates primarily from the ? orbital, while the other originates primarily from an n state of the nitrogen. Measurements of conductance and dI/dV spectra coupled with theoretical calculations revealed that the pyrazine SMJ has bistable conductance states, in which the pyrazine axis is either tilted or parallel with respect to the junction axis. The bistable states were switched by changing the gap size between the metal electrodes using an external force. Notably, it is difficult to change the electrical properties of bulk-state materials using mechanical force. The findings reveal that the electron transport properties of a SMJ can be controlled by designing a proper metal-molecule interface, which has considerable potential for molecular electronics. Moreover, this thesis will serve as a guideline for every step of SMJ research: design, fabrication, evaluation, and control.
This book presents a modern and systematic approach to Linear Response Theory (LRT) by combining analytic and algebraic ideas. LRT is a tool to study systems that are driven out of equilibrium by external perturbations. In particular the reader is provided with a new and robust tool to implement LRT for a wide array of systems. The proposed formalism in fact applies to periodic and random systems in the discrete and the continuum. After a short introduction describing the structure of the book, its aim and motivation, the basic elements of the theory are presented in chapter 2. The mathematical framework of the theory is outlined in chapters 3-5: the relevant von Neumann algebras, noncommutative $L^p$- and Sobolev spaces are introduced; their construction is then made explicit for common physical systems; the notion of isopectral perturbations and the associated dynamics are studied. Chapter 6 is dedicated to the main results, proofs of the Kubo and Kubo-Streda formulas. The book closes with a chapter about possible future developments and applications of the theory to periodic light conductors. The book addresses a wide audience of mathematical physicists, focusing on the conceptual aspects rather than technical details and making algebraic methods accessible to analysts. Giuseppe De Nittis is Assistant Professor of the Facultad de Matemáticas at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile in Santiago. He got his PhD in 2010 at SISSA (Trieste, Italy) working on the geometric interpretation of the Quantum Hall Effect and its relation with the Kubo formula. In the last years he worked constantly at the boundary between topology, algebra and analysis to face problems coming from the condensed matter area, with a special focus on the theory of topological insulators. More information can be found on his web page (gdenittis.wordpress.com). Max Lein is Assistant Professor at the Advanced Institute of Materials Research, which is associated to Tohoku University in Sendai Japan. He completed his PhD in 2011 at the Technische Universität München under the supervision of Prof. H. Spohn. He has worked for over 10 years on the rigorous analysis of problems from condensed matter physics, in particular topological effects, using tools from analysis and algebra. More recently, he broadened his field of interest to periodic light conductors. In his analyses, he has applied and developed pseudodifferential and semiclassical methods, and combined algebraic and analytic techniques (e. g. to analyze essential spectra of magnetic pseudodifferential operators). More information can be found on his homepage (maxlein.com).
This thirteenth volume in the PUILS series covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on atoms, molecules, and clusters interacting in intense laser field and high-order harmonics generation and their applications. The series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in ultrafast intense laser science, the interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Typically, each chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. Kaoru Yamanouchi has been Professor of Chemistry at The University of Tokyo since April 1997. His research fields are in physical chemistry and AMO physics, especially gas phase laser spectroscopy, chemical reaction dynamics, and intense laser science. In 1996, he launched a new research project to investigate how atoms, molecules, and clusters behave in an intense laser field whose magnitude is as large as that of a Coulomb field within atoms and molecules. By developing new experimental techniques such as mass-resolved momentum imaging, pulsed gas electron diffraction, and coincidence momentum imaging, he has continued a successful exploration of the new research field of ultrafast intense laser science. Among his discoveries, ultrafast structural deformation of molecules and ultrafast hydrogen atom migration within hydrocarbon molecules are particularly noteworthy. He has also demonstrated that the ultrafast structural changes of molecules can in principle be probed in real time with femtosecond temporal resolution using a method called laser-assisted electron diffraction. Wendell T. Hill, III has held the rank of Professor since 1996 at the University of Maryland, College Park, with appointments in the Institute for Physical Science and Technology and the Department of Physics; he has been a fellow of the Joint Quantum Institute at the University of Maryland since 2006. From high-energy particle physics to atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) physics to condensed matter physics, Hills publications span a broad range of physics subdisciplines. His current investigations fall into three AMO areas: ultrafast quantum dynamics; ultraintense laser-matter interactions; ultracold quantum atoms. His group was one of the first to employ velocity-map imaging, coupled with optimal-control techniques, to control femtosecond molecular dynamics. His most recent work finds him developing approaches to exploit phase-locked pairs of pulses, both to control dynamics and to decipher optimal control pulses. In addition to numerous journal manuscripts, he wrote the introductory chapter on electromagnetic radiation for the Encyclopedia of Applied Spectroscopy, published in 2009 by Wiley, co-author the physics text Light-Matter Interaction: Atoms and Molecules in External Fields and Nonlinear Optics, published in 2007 by Wiley and co-edited Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science VIII, published in 2012 by Springer Science. Gerhard G. Paulus has been a Professor of Nonlinear Optics at Friedrich Schiller University since September 2007, after leaving Texas A&M University, where he was Associate Professor of Physics since 2003. Currently, he is the dean of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy of his university. His research fields are strong-field and attosecond laser physics, high-precision X-ray polarimetry, and XUV nanoscale imaging. Key contributions are the discovery of the plateau in above-threshold ionization spectra and the measurement of the CE phase, the demonstration of X-ray polarimeters with an extinction ratio of 10 billion, and, most recently, the realization of optical coherence tomography in the extreme ultraviolet with nanometer resolution.