Environmental External Costs of Transport:Softcover reprint of hardcover 1st ed. 2001
Environmental External Costs of Transport:
External Costs of Coastal Beach Pollution:An Hedonic Approach Elizabeth A. Wilman
Analysis of the external costs of the Zurich airport:August 2015 Raziye Tugan, Hung Tran
External Environmental Costs of Electric Power:Analysis and Internalization
External Environmental Costs of Electric Power:Analysis and Internalization. Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1991
The Effect of Biodiesel to Pollutant Emission and External Cost:Biodiesel Utilization in Transportation Sector: Case Study Jakarta Soni Solistia Wirawan, Armansyah H. Tambunan, Martin Djamin
The capitalist era is passing - not quickly, but inevitably. Rising in its wake is a new global collaborative Commons that will fundamentally transform our way of life. Ironically, capitalism´s demise is not coming at the hands of hostile external forces. Rather, The Zero Marginal Cost Society argues, capitalism is a victim of its own success. Intense competition across sectors of the economy is forcing the introduction of ever newer technologies. Bestselling author Jeremy Rifkin explains that this competition is boosting productivity to its optimal point where the marginal cost of producing additional units is nearly zero, which makes the product essentially free. In turn, profits are drying up, property ownership is becoming meaningless, and an economy based on scarcity is giving way to an economy of abundance, changing the very nature of society. Rifkin describes how hundreds of millions of people are already transferring parts of their economic lives from capitalist markets to global networked Commons. ´´Prosumers´´ are producing their own information, entertainment, green energy, and 3-D printed products at nearly zero marginal cost, and sharing them via social media sites, rentals, redistribution clubs, bartering networks, and cooperatives. Meanwhile, students are enrolling in massive open online courses (MOOCs) that also operate at near-zero marginal cost. And young social entrepreneurs are establishing ecologically sensitive businesses, crowdsourcing capital, and even creating alternative currencies in the new sharable economy. As a result, ´´exchange value´´ in the marketplace - long the bedrock of our economy - is increasingly being replaced by ´´use value´´ on the collaborative Commons. In this new era, identity is less bound to what one owns and more to what one shares. Cooperation replaces self-interest, access trumps ownership, and networking drubs autonomy. Rifkin concludes that while capitalism will be with us for at least the next half century, albeit in an increasingly diminished role, it will no longer be the dominant paradigm. We are, Rifkin says, entering a world beyond markets where we are learning how to live together collaboratively and sustainably in an increasingly interdependent global Commons.
This book studies the welfare effects of external capital flows in small open developing countries with special emphasis on primary commodity export dependent countries. Welfare cost of macroeconomic volatility in the developing countries is several times larger than that in the developed countries. Further, most of this macroeconomic volatility is a result of exogenous shocks such as terms of trade or world price changes. External capital flows (coming largely from official creditors in the case of developing countries)have the potential to reduce these fluctuations. Focusing in particular on aid flows and external debt, I find that indexing these flows to external shocks can significantly improve the welfare outcome in developing countries.
Social Costs of Energy Consumption:External Effects of Electricity Generation in the Federal Republic of Germany Olav Hohmeyer